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Journal of Digital Landscape Architecture

e-ISSN 2511-624X


The Journal of Digital Landscape Architecture addresses all aspects of digital technologies, applications, information, and knowledge bases in research, education, and practice pertaining to landscape architecture and related fields. The journal publishes original papers that address theoretical and practical issues, innovative developments, methods, applications, findings, and case studies that are drawn primarily from work presented at the annual international Digital Landscape Architecture conference. Its intent is to encourage the broad dissemination of these ideas, innovations, and practices. The Journal of Digital Landscape Architecture is listed in the international citation database Scopus. It is in the top 35% of all journals in the engineering / architecture category.


Prof. Erich Buhmann, ATELIER BERNBURG (Editor-in-Chief)
Dr. Stephen Ervin, Harvard University
Prof. Dr. Pia Fricker, Aalto University, Finnland
Dr. Sigrid Hehl-Lange, University of Sheffield
Prof. Dr. James Palmer, State University New York

Guest Editors

Prof. Dr. sc. Susann Ahn, Vienna University of Technology (Issue 9-2024)
Prof. Hope Hasbrouck, University of Texas at Austin, United States (Issue 5-2020)
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thomas E. Hauck, Vienna University of Technology (Issue 9-2024)
Prof. Michael U. Hensel PhD, Vienna University of Technology (Issue 9-2024)
Prof. Dr. Ulrich Kias, Hochschule Weihenstephan-Triesdorf (Issue 3-2018)
Prof. Dr. Matthias Pietsch, Anhalt University (Issue 6-2021)
Prof. Dr. Jörg Rekittke, Leibniz University Hannover Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU) (Issue 4-2019)
Prof. Dr. Olaf Schroth, Hochschule Weihenstephan-Triesdorf (Issue 3-2018)
Dr. Yasin Çağatay Seçkin, Istanbul Technical University (Issue 1-2016)
Nastaran Tebyanian, Penn State University (Issue 7-2022)

Editorial Board

Prof. Aiden Ackerman, ESF SUNY Syracuse
Prof. sc. Susann Ahn, Vienna University of Technology
Prof. Dr. Ian Bishop, University of Melbourne
Prof. Dr. Thomas Blaschke, University of Salzburg
Prof. Dr. Madeline Brown, University of Maryland
Prof. Dr. B. Jon Burley, Michigan State University
Dr. Michele Campagna, University di Cagliari
Tess Canfield, Landscape Architect
Prof. Dr. Brent Chamberlain, Utah State University
Prof. Dr. Peter Connolly, Victoria University of Wellington
Prof. Max Conrad, Louisiana State University
Prof. John W. Danahy, University of Toronto
Dr. Beata Dreksler, American University of Beirut
Prof. Dr. Jürgen Döllner, Hasso Plattner Institute for Digital Engineering, Potsdam
Prof. Austin Dunn, Iowa State University
Prof. Dr. Jessica Fernandez, University of Georgia
Prof. Dr. Travis Flohr, Penn State University
Prof. Dr. Savior Formosa, University of Malta
Prof. Dr. Benjamin George, Utah State University
Dr. Elham Ghabouli, Asuni
Eric Gilbey, Vectorworks
Dr. Johannes Gnädinger, psu – Prof. Schaller UmweltConsult
Prof. Howard D. Hahn, Kansas State University
Prof. Dr. Brendan Harmon, Louisiana State University
Prof. Hope H. Hasbrouck, University of Texas at Austin
Prof. Ramzi Hassan, Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thomas Hauck, Vienna University of Technology
Prof. Dr. Marcel Heins, Anhalt University
Prof. Dr. Michael U. Hensel PhD, Vienna University of Technology
Dr. Ilmar Hurkxkens, TU Delft
Prof. Joachim Kieferle, RheinMain University of Applied Sciences
Prof. Dr. Mintai Kim, Virginia Tech
Prof. Dr. Thomas H. Kolbe, Technical University of Munich
Prof. Dr. Ron van Lammeren, Altera Wageningen University
Prof. Dr. Eckart Lange, University of Sheffield
Prof. Mark S. Lindhult, University of Massachusetts Amherst
Prof. Dr. Andrew Lovett, University of East Anglia
Rüdiger Mach, Mach:idee Visualisierung, Karlsruhe
Cristina Mattos, Freising
Prof. Dr. Mark Meagher, University of Manitoba
James Melsom, UTS – University of Technology Sydney, Australia
Prof. Dr. Elke Mertens, Hochschule Neubrandenburg − University of Applied Sciences
V.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Daniel Münderlein, Kassel University
Prof. Dr. Brian Orland, University of Georgia
Prof. Dr. Taner R. Ozdil, The University of Texas at Arlington
Dr. Agnieszka Ozimek, Cracow University of Technology
Philip Paar, Laubwerk, Potsdam
Prof. Dr. Matthias Pietsch, Anhalt University
Prof. Dr. Evangelia A. Polyzou, International Hellenic University
Prof. Dr. Jörg Rekittke, University College Dublin (UCD)
Dr. Lutz Ross, virtualcitySYSTEMS
Prof. Dr. Michael Roth, Nürtingen-Geislingen University
Dr. Thomas Schauppenlehner, BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences
Prof. Dr. Olaf Schroth, University of Applied Sciences Weihenstephan-Triesdorf
Dr. Hans-Georg Schwarz-v.Raumer, Stuttgart University
Dr. Yasin Çağatay Seçkin, Istanbul Technical University
Prof. Dr. Jozef Sedlacek, Mendel University in Brno
Prof. Dr. Allan Shearer, The University of Texas at Austin
Prof. Dr. Carl Steinitz, Harvard University/CASA UCL
Prof. Dr. Boris Stemmer, OWL University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Höxter
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Sven Stremke, Wageningen University & Research
Prof. Dr. Josef Strobl, University of Salzburg
Prof. Dr. Stefan Taeger, Osnabrück University of Applied Sciences
Prof. Dr. Dana Tomlin, University of Pennsylvania
Prof. Dr. David Tulloch, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Dr. Verena Vogler, R&D McNeeel Europe S. L.
Prof. Kristine Vugule, Latvia University of Agriculture
Dr. Ulrike Wissen Hayek, ETH Zürich
Dr. Peter Zeile, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Prof. Dr. Zihao Zhang, The City College of New York

Additional Reviewers for Specific Topics in JoDLA 5-2020

Prof. Aidan Ackerman, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry
Prof. Dr. Ian Bishop, University of Melbourne
Dr. Andreas Donaubauer, TU München
Prof. Craig Douglas, Harvard University GSD
Prof. Dr. Hayriye Esbah-Tuncay, Istanbul Technical University
Dennis Fehler, Harvard University GSD
Eric Gilbey, Vectorworks, Columbia, MD
Prof. Dr. Andrea Haase, Rainer Schmidt Landschaftsarchitekten, München
Kim Ikhwan, Istanbul Technical University
Benedikt Kowalewski, ETH Zurich
Dan Meehan, Penn State University
James Melsom, University of Technology Sydney
Dr. Rosalea Monacella, Harvard University GSD
Dr. Agnes Patuano, Wageningen University, Netherlands
Dr. Rosanna Rivero, University of Georgia
Sofia Sandqvist, Tengbomgruppen, Uppsala
Dr. Hans-Georg Schwarz-v.Raumer, Stuttgart University
Prof. Bruce Sharky, LSU Robert Reich School of Landscape Architecture
Prof. Dr. Allan Shearer, The University of Texas at Austin
Paola Sturla, Harvard University GSD
Dr. Ata Tara, RMIT University, Australia
Micah Taylor, University of Georgia
Wendy Walls, The University of Melbourne
Seok Min Yeo, Harvard University GSD

English Language Consulting

Jeanne Colgan, English for You, Bernburg

Editorial Assistants

Virginia Buhmann, Hochschule Düsseldorf
Noah Buhmann, Leipzig
Grete-Rahel Eschrich, Berlin
Satu Voß, Bernburg

Review System

Prof. Joachim Kieferle, Architect, Rhein-Main University of Wiesbaden, Germany

Editorial Office

Prof. Erich Buhmann, ATELIER BERNBURG Buhmann+Colgan, Germany,
atelier.bernburg(at) |


Wichmann Verlag im VDE VERLAG GMBH, Berlin/Offenbach


All articles are reviewed by an Editorial Board made up of renowned professionals using international standards (double-blind). The articles are original works that have not and will not appear elsewhere.

Open Access

The Journal of Digital Landscape Architecture is an open access publication in which the articles are published under the Creative-Commons-License "ND CC BY 4.0"

 Thereby all articles are under a “Creative Commons naming convention - no derivative works - 4.0 international license”. On this basis, contributions may be duplicated in every format or medium, but may not however be changed. With the submission of a manuscript to the Journal of Digital Landscape Architecture, the authors of the publications agree to terms of this license (Terms and Conditions)

Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement

For all parties involved in the act of publishing – the author, the journal editor(s), the peer reviewer and the publisher – it is necessary to agree upon standards of expected ethical behaviour. The ethics statements for the JoDLA – Journal of Digital Landscape Architecture are based on the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) Core Practices.


Duties of the Editors

Fair play and editorial independence

Editor-in-Chief and Editors evaluate submitted manuscripts solely based on their academic merit (importance, originality, study’s validity, clarity), its relevance to the journal’s scope and regardless of race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors. Decisions to edit and publish are not determined by the policies of governments or any other agencies outside of the journal itself. The Editor-in-Chief has full authority over the entire editorial content of the journal and the timing of publication of that content.


The Editors, and editorial staff will not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher, as appropriate.

Disclosure and conflicts of interest

The Editors, and editorial staff will not use unpublished information disclosed in a submitted manuscript for their own research purposes without the authors’ explicit written consent. Editors and reviewers will recuse themselves from considering manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships/connections with any of the authors, companies or institutions connected to the papers; instead, they will ask another member of the editorial board to handle the manuscript.

Publication decisions

The Editor-in-Chief of the journal ensures that all submitted manuscripts being considered for publication undergo peer-review by at least two reviewers who are expert in the field. The Editor-in-Chief are responsible for deciding which of the manuscripts submitted to the journal will be published based on the validation of the work in question, its importance to researchers and readers, the reviewers’ comments, and such legal requirements as are currently in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The Editor-in-Chief may confer with other editors or reviewers in making this decision.

Financial Liability by the Editor-in-Chief

The Editor-in-Chief is liable for the cost of the publisher and the editorial staff. The publishing costs for authors need to be adapted based on the expected total cost of producing the publication of JoDLA – Journal of Digital Landscape Architecture.

Duties of Board of Editors

Members of the Board of Editors of JoDLA – Journal of Digital Landscape Architecture are experts in the field of Digital Landscape Architecture. They support the Editor-in Chief and the Editors by serving as Reviewers, recruiting new contributions to JoDLA, and to promoting the Call of Papers and Call for Posters within their network of colleagues working in Digital Landscape Architecture.

Duties of peer reviewers

Contribution to editorial decisions

Peer review assists the Editor-in-Chief in making editorial decisions and, through the editorial communication with the authors, may assist in improving their manuscript. Peer review is an essential component of formal scholarly communication and lies at the heart of scientific endeavour. The JoDLA – Journal of Digital Landscape Architecture shares the view of many in the academic community that all scholars who wish to contribute to the scientific process have an obligation to do a fair share of reviewing.


Any invited referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible should immediately notify the Editor-in-Chief so that alternative reviewers can be contacted.


Any manuscripts received for review are confidential documents and are treated as such; they must not be shown to or discussed with others except if authorized by the Editor-in-Chief (who would only do so under exceptional and specific circumstances). This applies also to invited reviewers who decline the review invitation.

Standards of objectivity

Reviews should be conducted objectively and observations formulated clearly with supporting arguments so that authors can use them for improving the manuscript. Personal criticism of the authors is inacceptable.

Acknowledgement of sources

Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the Editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other manuscript (published or unpublished) of which they have personal knowledge.

Disclosure and conflict of interest

Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. This applies also to invited reviewers who decline the review invitation. Reviewers should not consider evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the submission.

Duties of authors

Reporting standards

Authors reporting results of original research should present an accurate account of the conducted work followed by an objective discussion of its significance. The manuscript should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behaviour and are unacceptable.

Originality and plagiarism

Authors should ensure that they have written and submit only entirely original works, and if they have used the work and/or words of others, that this has been appropriately cited. Publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the work reported in the manuscript should also be cited. Plagiarism takes many forms, from "passing off" another's paper as the author's own, to copying or paraphrasing substantial parts of another's paper (without attribution), to claiming results from research conducted by others. Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical publishing behaviour and is unacceptable. JoDLA – Journal of Digital Landscape Architecture uses adequate software to support the identification of plagiarism.

Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication

Papers describing essentially the same research should not be published in more than one journal or primary publication. Hence, authors should not submit for consideration a manuscript that has already been published in another journal. Submission of a manuscript concurrently to more than one journal is unethical publishing behaviour and unacceptable.

Acknowledgement of sources

Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. Authors should ensure that they have properly acknowledged the work of others, and should also cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work. Information obtained privately (from conversation, correspondence or discussion with third parties) must not be used or reported without explicit, written permission from the source. Authors should not use information obtained in the course of providing confidential services, such as refereeing manuscripts or grant applications, unless they have obtained the explicit written permission of the author(s) of the work involved in these services.

Hazards and human or animal subjects

If the work involves chemicals, procedures or equipment that have any unusual hazards inherent in their use, the authors must clearly identify these in the manuscript. If the work involves the use of animals or human participants, the authors should ensure that all procedures were performed in compliance with relevant laws and institutional guidelines and that the appropriate institutional committee(s) has approved them; the manuscript should contain a statement to this effect. Authors should also include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human participants. The privacy rights of human participants must always be observed.

Disclosure and conflicts of interest

All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or their interpretation in the manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.

Peer review

Authors are obliged to participate in the peer review process and cooperate fully by responding promptly to editors’ requests for clarifications, raw data, proof of ethics approval and copyright permissions. In the case of a first decision of "revisions necessary", authors should respond to the reviewers’ comments systematically, point by point, and in a timely manner, revising and re-submitting their manuscript to the journal together with the corresponding rebuttal by the deadline given.

Fundamental errors in published works

When authors discover significant errors or inaccuracies in their own published work, it is their obligation to promptly notify the journal’s editors or publisher and cooperate with them to either correct the paper in the form of an erratum or to retract the paper. If the editors or publisher learns from a third party that a published work contains a significant error or inaccuracy, then it is the authors’ obligation to promptly correct or retract the paper or provide evidence to the journal editors of the correctness of the paper.

Duties of the Publisher

Handling of unethical publishing behaviour

In cases of alleged or proven scientific misconduct, fraudulent publication or plagiarism the publisher, in close collaboration with the Editors, will take all appropriate measures to clarify the situation and to amend the article in question. This includes the prompt publication of an erratum or, in the most severe cases, the complete retraction of the affected work. The publisher, together with the editors, shall take reasonable steps to identify and prevent the publication of papers where research misconduct has occurred, and under no circumstances encourage such misconduct or knowingly allow such misconduct to take place.

Access to journal content

The publisher is committed to the permanent availability and preservation of scholarly research and ensures accessibility by partnering with organizations and maintaining our own digital archive. The Wichmann Verlag, VDE VERLAG GMBH has an archiving policy: Deutsche Nationalbibliothek.